15+ Types of Computer Security to Keep Your Data Safe

15+ Types of Computer Security to Keep Your Data Safe

Last updated on May 4th, 2024 at 11:18 am

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Computer security, or cybersecurity, is an extensive and ever-expanding sector and phrase used to safeguard computers, networks, and information from various types of threats, including cyberattacks, access to unauthorized information, and violating information data. This article thoroughly covers types of computer security and most aspects of computer security measures, giving a comprehensive and detailed description.

Let’s discuss the Top 17 Types of Computer Security.

1. Network Security

Network security involves securing the network’s protection from intruders, either targeted attackers or opportunistic malware. Some of the components of network security include


These are the first line of defence, controlling incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules.

Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS)

These systems monitor network traffic to identify and respond to suspicious activity.

Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)

VPNs encrypt internet traffic, enhancing security by creating a private network from a public internet connection.

Network segmentation

This practice divides the network into multiple segments, reducing pathways for attackers and limiting potential damage.

2. Internet Security

Internet security focuses on protecting data transmitted over the internet. It encompasses several measures:

Browser Security

Implementations to secure web browsers from exploits via plugins or settings adjustments.

Email Security

Techniques to safeguard sensitive information sent via email from phishing, scams, and other threats.


Tools like SSL/TLS protocols help protect data in transit, ensuring it cannot be easily intercepted or tampered with.

3. Endpoint Security

Endpoint security involves securing the entry points of end-user devices such as desktops, laptops, and mobile devices. Components include:

Antivirus and Antimalware Software:

These are essential for detecting and removing malicious software.

Data Loss Prevention (DLP)

Software that monitors detects and blocks sensitive data while in use, in motion, and at rest.

Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR)

Advanced tools that provide continuous monitoring and response to mitigate threats.

4. Application Security

Application security aims to make applications more secure by finding, fixing, and preventing security vulnerabilities. Techniques involve:

Secure Coding Practices

Ensuring that security is considered at each stage of software development.

Security Testing

Tools like static and dynamic analysis help identify vulnerabilities before deployment.

Application Firewalls

These specifically target applications, blocking attempted attacks.

5. Data Security

Data security protects digital data from unauthorized access, corruption, or theft throughout its lifecycle. It involves:


Transforming data into a secure, unreadable format without a key.

Data Masking

Creating a structurally similar but inauthentic version of an organization’s data to protect sensitive information.


Replacing sensitive data with unique identification symbols that retain essential information without compromising security.

6. Identity Management and Access Control

This security type ensures that only authenticated and authorized users and processes can access technology resources. It includes:


Verifying the identity of a user, device, or other entity in a computer system is often a prerequisite to allowing access to resources.

Access Control

Techniques that restrict the availability of resources to authorized users, such as role-based access control (RBAC).

User Entity Behavior Analytics (UEBA)

Advanced analytics can identify abnormalities that might indicate a potential security threat.

7. Cloud Security

With the adoption of cloud computing, cloud security has become a significant concern. It includes:

Cloud Access Security Brokers (CASBs)

Security policy enforcement points are placed between cloud service consumers and providers to combine and interject enterprise security policies as resources are accessed.

Secure Data Storage

Ensuring all data stored in the cloud is protected against breaches with encryption, redundancy, and secure access controls.

Virtualization Security

Specific measures to protect the virtualized environments underpin cloud computing, including secure virtual network and hypervisor security.

8. Operational Security

Operational Security involves the processes and decisions for handling and protecting data assets. This includes:

Incident Response

The methodology an organization uses to respond to and manage a cyberattack.

Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity

Strategies that help organizations recover from cyberattacks and continue operations with minimal downtime.

User Training

Educating employees about how to identify and avoid security threats.

9. Cryptography

Cryptography secures information and communications through codes so that only those for whom the information is intended can read and process it. It encompasses:

Symmetric Encryption

Uses a single key for both encryption and decryption.

Asymmetric Encryption

It uses public and private keys to encrypt and decrypt messages.

Hash Functions

Used to ensure data integrity, converting information into a cryptographic hash representing it.

10. Physical Security

Physical security is essential to protecting the hardware and facilities that house computer systems, networks, and data. It encompasses:

Access Controls

Mechanisms like biometric scans, key cards, and PIN codes restrict physical access to sensitive areas.


CCTV cameras and other monitoring techniques detect unauthorized activities around secure facilities.

Environmental Controls

Systems to protect equipment from fire, flooding, and other environmental hazards.

11. Mobile Security

Mobile security has become increasingly important with the ubiquitous use of mobile devices. It protects personal and corporate information stored on smartphones, tablets, and laptops. Components include:

Mobile Device Management (MDM)

Software that allows IT administrators to control and secure mobile devices across an organization.

Mobile Application Management (MAM)

Focuses on securing individual applications by managing their deployment and updating.

Secure Wi-Fi

Protocols to ensure that connections over public or private Wi-Fi networks are secured against eavesdropping and data theft.

12. Supply Chain Security

Supply chain security addresses the risks introduced by third-party vendors and suppliers within an organization’s ecosystem. This includes:

Third-party Risk Management

Assessing and managing the risk associated with external partners, suppliers, and vendors.

Software Supply Chain Attacks

Preventing attacks that occur when malicious code is inserted into legitimate software components or updates.

Hardware Supply Chain Integrity

Ensuring that hardware components are not tampered with or substituted with malicious alternatives.

13. Database Security

Database security is crucial for protecting the storage and retrieval of data. Beyond access controls and encryption, it includes:

Activity Monitoring and Auditing

Tracking access and usage of database resources to detect and respond to suspicious activities.

Database Firewalls

Preventing unauthorized database transactions and attacks such as SQL injection.

14. Behavioral Analytics

Behavioural analytics leverages user activity data to identify anomalies that may indicate a potential security threat. It includes:

User and Entity Behavior Analytics (UEBA)

Detecting deviations from normal behaviour to identify malicious or risky activities.

Predictive Analytics

Using machine learning models to predict potential threats based on historical data.

15. Zero Trust Security

Zero Trust is a security concept centred on the belief that organizations should not automatically trust anything inside or outside their perimeters. Instead, they must verify anything and everything trying to connect to its systems before granting access. This includes:


Dividing security perimeters into small zones to maintain access for separate network parts.

Least Privilege Access Control

Ensuring users have only the access they need for their job functions.

16. Quantum Cryptography

As quantum computing becomes more of a reality, quantum cryptography is emerging as a solution to potentially safeguard against the quantum computing threat to current encryption methods. This includes:

Quantum Key Distribution (QKD)

Using quantum mechanics to distribute encryption keys securely.

Post-Quantum Cryptography

Developing new cryptographic systems that are secure against both quantum and classical computers.

17. IoT Security

Specific strategies and technologies are needed to secure the Internet of Things (IoT) devices that are increasingly embedded in our personal and professional lives. It involves:

Device Authentication

Ensuring IoT devices are correctly identified and authenticated before they can connect to networks.

Firmware Integrity

Check that the IoT device firmware has not been tampered with and has been updated to defend against vulnerabilities.

The Human Factor in Security

Security Awareness Training

Despite technological advances, the human factor often remains the weakest link in security chains. Phishing attacks and other forms of social engineering are effective ways for attackers to bypass technological defences. Comprehensive security awareness training can empower employees to recognize and avoid security threats, reducing the risk of human error.

Insider Threats

Insider threats can be among the most challenging to detect and prevent. These threats can come from current or former employees, contractors, or business associates with inside information concerning the organization’s security practices. Addressing insider threats requires a combination of administrative controls, access controls, and continuous monitoring of user activities.

Future Directions in Computer Security

The future of computer security will likely see increased reliance on automation, AI, and machine learning to handle the growing complexity and volume of threats. At the same time, there will be a greater emphasis on creating secure software and hardware by design, integrating security into every phase of technological development.

As we look forward, integrating interdisciplinary approaches involving fields such as behavioural science can enhance understanding of human factors in cybersecurity. Additionally, the rise of quantum computing presents both an opportunity and a challenge for computer security, potentially rendering current encryption methods obsolete and requiring a new breed of cryptographic solutions.


A wide range of techniques and types of computer security need to be kept up to date and integrated to counter evolving threats, which constitute the landscape for computer security. The different types of computer security have a specific focus and require special tools and strategies to be effective. Keeping up to date and active in the constantly evolving area of cyber security is vital for protecting valuable digital and physical assets from individuals and organizations alike.

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